Basic Hellenic-Latin-English Philosophical Terms


The Basic Philosophical Terms in English come from Ancient Greek Terms that, "arrived" in the English Language through the Latin Language. The Greek Language is (philosophically) much richer than English. It contains many terms that are not translated into English or are translated with the same word. This shows the poverty of the English Language. In the Anglo-Saxon Universities and in the official publications of English Culture the true origin of English philosophical terms is often obscured. They mention only the Latin Origin. Whoever wants to find the Truth must study Ancient Greek Language, Plato, Aristotle, Stoics, Plotinus, in general the ancient philosophers. The Ancient Greeks said much more than what is taught today in the universities of the Western World.

Below we mention some basic philosophical terms. We quote the Greek Scriptures and see the English Translation.




"Being" (Utterly Being) is seen as the source of all reality and the fundamental ground of all existence. This concept is broad and includes both intangible and material aspects. There is a fundamental difference between “Being” and “becoming”. "Being" refers to the unchanging and eternal. "Becoming" refers to the changing and the temporal. "Being" refers to the state or quality of having existence or being alive. It can also refer to the nature or essence of a being or thing. That is, it refers to the fundamental properties of an entity that make it what it is and how it exists in the world.

HELLENIC: Ειμί, εστί, είναι, ων, ον, ουσία.

LATIN: Sum, est, est, ens, ens, substantia.

ENGLISH: I am, is, is, being, being, substance.

Meaning: I am, I exist, it is (conjunctive verb that connects the subject with the predicate), that which is, existence.

Existence, substance, nature of a thing, that which belongs to one, to one's being.



Existence is the Way "Being" Manifests. Existence is the Fundamental Reality from which everything originates. It is Without Attributes, an Infinite Void, beyond Space and Time. Everything that exists refers to This Basic Principle. It is the Reality of every relative reality, every being or thing that appears in Becoming, in creation and in the world. The individual beings within creation derive their being, their essence from the Underlying Reality. They are manifestations of one Essence. Therefore they have no independent existence of their own. Ultimately, Existence is a transcendent substance and has a metaphysical depth. It is not simply presence in the physical world.

HELLENIC: Υπάρχω, υπάρχει, υπάρχειν, υπάρχων, υπάρχον, ύπαρξη.


LATIN: Ego exist, exist, exist, existentium existentium, existentia.

ENGLISH: I exist, exist, exist, existing, existing, existence.

Meaning: I come into existence, live, emerge, appear, present).



Presence is the Sense of Existence. In its Pure form it is the Sense of Existence Without Attributes, beyond Space and Time. Presence in Becoming is the Sense of Existence in some Situation in creation, in some environment. Presence in the physical world is the sense of being within the physical world. Physical presence is enhanced by thought, sensations, body sensation and contact with external things. Also, presence does not only have the general meaning of "being in the world", in the environment. It also has the meaning of intervention and interaction with the environment. It still has the meaning of "awareness that we are here, now", fully aware in the present moment, fully attentive to what is happening. (In the latter sense it is associated with practices of meditation and full awareness of the present moment).

HELLENIC: Πάρειμι, παρείναι, παρείναι, παρών, παρόν, παρουσία.


LATIN: Praesens sum, est praesens, esse praesens, present, present, praesentia.

ENGLISH: I am present, it is present, to be present, present, present, presence.

Meaning: I am here, near, present, attending, present to someone or something.





From "Being" in its Pure State, Immediately, Spontaneously and Without Process, the Knowledge of "Being", the Knowledge of Reality, arises. Thus, "Being" is Consciousness, Self-Consciousness and Consciousness of its "Nature" (its Attributes). Consciousness is therefore the Direct Knowledge that comes from within, it is the Direct Contact with Reality, with What Is. When there is Becoming, creation, Consciousness supports and makes conscious any activity, energy or function. This is how the Consciousness of the Whole (Universal Consciousness) and the Individual Consciousness (the individual consciousnesses) emerge. Individual consciousness, operating from a "center" of perception, perceives reality dualistic. It is the individual consciousness that in order to know the external environment uses indirect processes, Perception, Cognitive Process, logical thinking and simple intellect, senses and external physical experience. Consciousness is the Substratum of all functions, and individual consciousness, and its functions, and is not identical with all of these. Consciousness Exists even when there is no perception or content. It exists in its Pure form. Consciousness is in its Nature Attribute-less, Non-Local, Timeless. But when it is limited to individuality and integrated (as in man) it is both Non-Local and Local (within the Body, the brain, the nervous system, the body).


HELLENIC: Είδω (ορώ), Οίδα, ειδέναι, είδησις.

LATIN: Vid-eo (videre), vidi (scio ego), scire, nuntium.


ENGLISH: I see, I know, to know, information.


Είδω: the word has been replaced with  ορώ (I see).

I see, distinguish, face, notice, look, look forward, contemplate.

I see, have a direct view, contact with something, know directly, without process.

I see spiritually.

Οίδα: The adjacent Οίδα is used as a present tense with the meaning "I have seen, I have known directly, myself". It is an immediate, inherent, inner capacity of being, to know without process.

Ειδέναι: to know.

Είδηση: Information.



HELLENIC: Σύνοιδα, συνειδέναι, το συνειδός (=συνείδησις), συνείδηση (συναίσθηση), συνειδητός.

LATIN: Con-scio (con-scire), conscientiam, conscius, conscientia, conscius.

ENGLISH: I am aware, conscience conscious, consciousness, conscious.


Σύνοιδα: I know, what everyone knows, I share in common the knowledge of a thing, I have knowledge, I am knowledgeable about a thing, I have "objective" knowledge.

Συνειδέναι: I am aware of something. To know objectively.

Συνείδηση: Consciousness, having objective knowledge

Συνειδητός: Conscious, I have knowledge of something

So: Συνείδηση, Consciousness (having objective knowledge) is the main characteristic of entity, of existence: I am Consciousness. Consciousness is the Essence of Existence.

The word Consciousness, as used in the Hellenic Language, has two meanings.

First: It is the Psychological inner, certain, objective, direct knowledge of reality. In Embodied Consciousness is the Inner Certainty for the knowledge of the external world, where is used thought, the experience of the external world, the senses, the experience of things.

Second: It is the acceptance of shared objective knowledge that has moral characteristics. The knowledge of a thing which all know, the common, objective knowledge, accepted by all.

In Latin the word Consciousness in the first sense is translated as con-scio (I know), conscius, consciens and Conscientiam. Conscius esse (to be conscious of something, to know).

In the second sense it is translated as conscientia (moral conscience). The knowledge of a thing which all know, the common, objective knowledge, accepted by all.

In English the terms are translated as consciousness and conscience (moral conscience).





Perception, as Inner Action, is a direct, accurate, and profound understanding or apprehension of Reality. That is, of the Fundamental Nature of Reality which is All, a Vast and Open Expanse of Awareness, where everything manifests. It is the Full awareness of Reality. As an external action it is a conception of the environment in which existence manifests itself. Here belong the Various Worlds Manifesting in the same Space of Reality in various "dimensions". In the higher worlds Perception is a mental process. In the external material world the perceptual process is aided by the intellect, the senses and external experiences.

HELLENIC: Κάπτω: Receive, take, swallow greedily, devour, grab.

When we refer to the intellect, the cognitive process: Gather (information from the environment), Perceive, learn, know. "Feel".

When we refer to sensation: I gather information from the external environment through the senses.

Therefore, the term is used in two ways, in a general (or internal, mental sense) and in a common, external sense

LATIN: Capio: To take, apprehend, seize, capture.

I undertake, I adopt. I hold, I contain. I possess, take possession of. I understand.

Percipio: Per (through) + capio: To seize. I perceive, I observe. I feel. I learn, I know, I apprehend, I understand.

Perceptio: percipio+tio: Perception, Understanding. Receiving, collecting, gathering (of information, when we refer to the cognitive process).

ENGLISH: Perception: The way something is perceived, understood or interpreted

external perception: The ability to see, hear or become aware of something through the senses.




“Being” Includes many Situations that are “Relative. Consciousness Manifests in Many Fields, within creation. Awareness is the Recognition of the Specific Environment, in any case and its full understanding, full knowledge of it. In this sense we speak of Full Self-Awareness in Reality or Self-Awareness in the Worlds of creation. In the case of Embodied Consciousness Awareness is Understanding the Self in relation to activities in the world (thought, sensation, experience) and to the body. Thus, Awareness is the Gateway to Self-Knowledge, the Experience of the True Deeper Self and the Opening to Freedom to the Higher (or more Inner) Worlds. Awareness as Integral Attention of the current moment is the essence of many meditative practices.


HELLENIC: Επιγιγνώσκω, Επίγνωσις.

LATIN: Epignosco, Epignosis.

ENGLISH: Epignosco, Epignosis.


I know fully, I have true knowledge.

Full, clear and accurate knowledge of something, correct knowledge, understanding.


I am present, I know something (I understand).

Επίγνωση-Awareness (Deeper Knowledge) is Complete knowledge. Awareness has two meanings:

First: It is Inner Knowledge, certainty, of reality, beyond the senses.

Second: It is the certain knowledge of the external world.

In Latin: Epignosco, Epignosis.

In English it has two meanings: Consciousness or Insight and Awareness.

Also the word Επίγνωση-Awareness has the meanings, I am here, presence, vigilance, attention.

Παρουσία-Presence: a person or thing that exists or exists in a place. Latin: Praesentia. English: Presence.

Επαγρύπνηση-Vigilance, Vigilance. Latin: Vigilia. English: Vigilance.

Προσοχή-Attension. Latin: cautela English: Attension.



7. COGNITION (knowledge- wisdom)


Cognition or Cognitive functioning is the process of acquiring, processing, storing, reorganizing acquired knowledge, and using knowledge in life. When the cognitive function refers to the Inner Reality, the Self, the Nature of the Self, the cognitive function is spontaneous, immediate, without process. In this case the cognitive function is identified with Consciousness itself in its natural state and with the Full Awareness of Reality. When the cognitive function refers to creation, the worlds (and the external material world) then the process is indirect. In the Higher Worlds it is "apprehension" of reality, mental texture. In the case of Embodied Consciousness (i.e. in humans) cognition is an indirect process supported by individual functions such as: 1) Perception, objective thinking, reasoning, instinctual intelligence, as well as memory and language (i.e. conceptualization of reality). 2) Sensory perception (i.e. the intake, interpretation, organization and integration into the mental base of sensory information from sight, hearing, etc.), as well as internalization of this information into representations and concepts. 3) Attention and selective intake and (unilateral) processing of information. 4) Solving problems through logical thinking and reasoning with the help of memory (i.e. experience) and imagination. 5) Decision-making, i.e. the choice of action based on acquired knowledge, personal values and given information.


HELLENIC: Γιγνώσκω, γνώναι, γιγνώσκειν, γιγνώσκων, γνωτός (γνωστός), γνώμη, γνώσις.




LATIN: Cognosco (con+gnosco), cognescere, cognitio, scientia.




ENGLISH: Cognition.



Gnosis (esoteric knowledge).


Know, learn, perceive, understand, know well.

Recognize after observation, distinguish, separate.

I believe, I form an opinion about something, judge, decide.

I observe, I form an opinion, judgment, about a situation; judge or think in this way.

Intelligible, perceptible, distinct.

So, In Hellenic: There are two meanings of   Γιγνώσκω (Cognition):

First: I Know Directly, inwardly with the Innate faculty of Intelligence. It is the direct apprehension of inner reality, or reality from within. No process or recruitment from outside (from an outside world).

Second: I know through perception or observation of things. It is the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience of the external world, and the senses.

In Latin the Hellenic Γιγνώσκω is translated cognosco (con-gnosco) and cognitio (learning, knowledge).

In English the Latin cognitio is translated Cognition.

Following the Greek concepts there are two kinds of knowledge:

Rational Knowledge: Knowledge or Rational Knowledge or Noesis or Inner Knowledge. it is the direct perception of inner reality or reality from within. No process or recruitment from outside (from outside world).

Non-rational knowledge: Knowledge or non-rational knowledge or conceiving or external knowledge. It is the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience of the external world, and the senses.




8. SCIENCE (scientific knowledge - understanding)


Scientific knowledge is correct, accurate and verified knowledge. It is the understanding of the phenomena of existence. When Consciousness remains or turns within, knowledge is from within and is correct, accurate and certain. It is the Inner Knowledge, the Sacred Knowledge. It is associated with mystical experience, religious experience or philosophical enlightenment. When Consciousness turns to creation, knowledge is indirect. In the Higher Worlds it is the correct conception of reality. When Consciousness is embedded in the material world, correct knowledge must be objective, follow logical rules, and be confirmed by experience through observation, experimentation, analysis, and repetition. Only in this way is scientific knowledge founded.

When a set of scientific knowledge is formed in a field of reality then it is called science. The most important science is Anthropology. We define as Anthropology the Knowledge of the True Man, of the Embodied Consciousness (and not simply of the biological organism). In this sense, Anthropology is identical with Esoteric Science, or Sacred Science, which is the Source and Foundation and Support of every religious concept, every mystical view, every spiritual practice (such as meditation, prayer, yoga, etc.).

All the Sciences are important, and the Humanities (Philosophy, Psychology, etc.). and the Natural Sciences.


HELLENIC: Ίστημι, ίσταμαι.

LATIN: Sisto.

ENGLISH: Stand (to exist, be present).

Meaning: I am here, I stand here, I am present and I am aware of everything that is happening.

I understand, I perceive, I realize.

HELLENIC: Επίσταμαι, επίστασθαι, επιστήμη.

LATIN: i sto.

ENGLISH: I am standing.

Meaning: I know something as a fact, I know for sure, I am experienced in something, or I know it well.

I am sure or believe that something is so.

Επίσταμαι in the sense of  "I understand" is in Latin intelligere (to understand) and intelligentia (understanding) and in English intelligence (understanding).

Also, in English I understand is expressed with Under-Stand.

Under: under, between, before, in the presence of, subject to, under the rule of, through.

Stand (to exist, be present).

Understand (sub=between, between + stand): to stand between things to separate and distinguish them. To form an opinion or come to a conclusion through reasoning and information.

Understanding: understanding, perception, knowledge.


LATIN: In Latin, Hellenic “science” is translated as Scientia:

Scio (I know)

scire (to know)

Sciens (he who knows)

Scientia: (science, correct, exact, ascertained knowledge)


ENGLISH: In English the Latin scientia is translated Science.




9. Nous


Absolute Nous is Consciousness in its Natural State, the Divine Principle, Transcendent, Incomprehensible, Without Attributes.

Cosmic Nous (as in Presocratics, Anaxagoras) is the Cosmic Consciousness, the Logos, a Universal Transcendent Intelligence that Creates and Pervades all Creation. It is not only the Reality of creation but also the Completion of creation (as creation returns, as it evolves, to the Original Reality). Cosmic Nous is also the Depth shared by all beings. It is the Ultimate Goal and Ultimate Attainment for all beings. It is also the Source of all Knowledge, of Wisdom and all spiritual and moral guidance. The Inexhaustible Source of Religion and Philosophy.

The Nous (as a limitation of the Cosmic Nous, the individual human nous or mind) is the Principle of Intelligence manifested as Perception, Reasonable abstract thought, Discretionary intellect (intellect or reasoning), lower intellect. It includes Understanding, Memory, Reason (as Right Action), etc. It is the Source of inner world knowledge and logical values. It is aided by sense perception and external experience (from the material world).


HELLENIC: Νους (Nous), Νόηση (Noesis, thought), Νοείν (Noein, to think)


LATIN: mentem


ENGLISH: Nous, mind, (intellect, intelligence, thought, understanding).





1) Logos as the Principle of Consciousness, Awareness, Perception, Feeling is the Essential Property of Being, of Existence, it is the Essence of Being, Being. It is the World Authority. It is the Logos of the Philosophers, the Deity: Thus, Logos get essence is and means: God, Spirit, Nature, Life, Truth.

From the moment something is perceived, it is "named": Its essence is its word, the name and vice versa. The outer name (which is simply conceived not with the Inner Mind but with the outer intellect and perception) is only symbolic of the being.

2) The Human Logos (In the image of the Universal Logos, the Individual Logos, the Individuality)


Λόγος, Logos: The intellectual ability, property of being , logic , the reasonable : The rectum reason, the correct one thought , the rational way of thinking.

Λόγος, Logos: The possibility, the ability of the being:

1. to perceive, understand, know and think correctly,

2. to be aware and have a correct perception of the environment

3. to speak and articulate one's thought ; speech

4. everything someone says, word, phrase, conversation

5. relationship with things subject to some logic , analogy : relationship

6. system of expression and communication between people: language

7. edited expression aimed at: 

a. the wording of distributions: Scientific, political, philosophical, empirical, technocratic discourse.

b. the production, the creation of an aesthetic effect: literature: Pedestrian, measured, poetic reason. 


Λόγος, Logos: It's the ability conscious its application of logic , with drawing conclusions from new or existing ones information , with the aim of searching for it of truth : Reasoning.

Λόγος, Logos: denotes the act of gathering , choosing, correct order and citation and consequently ascertaining the correct relationship of things. Furthermore, it states the relationship, the analogy, the relevance, that exists between beings, Finally, it states the laws that govern this relationship, as well as the imposed corresponding behavior.


HELLENIC: Λέγω – λόγος – λογική – λογικός.

LATIN: Dicunt – ratio – logica – ratiobile)

ENGLISH: Say (tell) - reason (ratio, speech, word) – logic - logical (reasonable, rational, sensible)).


Διάλογος ( Latin Dialogus ) (English dialogue ).

Αντίλογος ( Latin Oppositem ) (English opposite ).

Παράλογος ( Latin  irrationalabile ) ( English illogical, unreasonable, irrational).



HELLENIC: Λογίζομαι, I cogitate, I calculate: I think, measure and conclude about objects, I reason, I think.

I count and conclude, calculate.

Conclude reasoning , I conclude that.

LATIN: Cogito.

ENGLISH: Cogitate, think, meditate.


HELLENIC: Λογισμός, Cogitation,  Calculation: I count (calculate) but also think about something.

LATIN: cogitatio , calcul.

ENGLISH: Cogitation, calculus, (calculation, reckoning, account).

Reflection, reasoning, thought, argument.

Concideration, estimation, purpose.



HELLENIC: Συλλογίζομαι,Contemplate: Collect and bring to mind, reflect, think, fully calculate, based on logic. I conclude through logical reasoning .

LATIN: meditari.

ENGLISH: meditate (cogitate, reflect, think)


HELLENIC: Συλλογισμός, Reasoning: Logic thought which leads us to a conclusion.  

LATIN: ratiocinatio.

ENGLISH: syllogism (reasoning, cogitation).



HELLENIC: Διαλογίζομαι, I meditate: It is Deep  Cognition, Understanding, Knowledge,  which goes beyond simple reasoning and concepts and directly, intuitively approaches reality.

I weigh something in mind, I think round, I stop to ponder, I calculate precisely. I distinguish between... I discuss, argue, examine, about something.

LATIN: meditatus sum.

ENGLISH: I meditate.



HELLENIC: Διαλογισμός, Meditation: It is the apprehension of reality without the thought process, it is the revelation of truth beyond the level of thought.

LΑΤΙΝ: meditation.

EΝΓΛΙΣΗ: meditation.



11. Intelligence


Intelligence is the Activity of Consciousness to Perceive, Understand and Use its knowledge in its Action.

When Intelligence Realizes Itself, Directly, without process then it is Pure Intelligence, True Objective Intelligence, and is identified with Pure Perception and Pure Awareness.

When Intelligence Turns to the Situations within creation then it differentiates. In Universal Consciousness it is direct (mental) perception of reality. In the Individual Consciousness (embodied as a Man) it is an indirect process.

Intelligence refers to the totality of mental activities and all that we produce mentally, that is, the cognitive process and the adaptation to the environment and the final understanding of the phenomenon of existence.

As it is a creation of the individual consciousness (perceived dualistically) it is a content of the individual consciousness, a construction, a closed system of perception, which has limits, and cannot manifest the ultimate reality. The Ultimate Reality includes both individual consciousness and Self-awareness. Self-awareness leads to the recognition of individual consciousness as a limitation of Universal Consciousness, which is a Manifestation of the Divine.

HELLENIC: Κατά-νόηση (Comprehension, the ability to understand a situation, i.e. to perceive, recognize and assimilate the information from a situation).

LATIN: intelligere (perceive, understand), intellectus (understanding), intlligentia (intelligence, understanding)

ENGLISH: intelligence (the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills)



12. Concept


Consciousness is One, Infinite, Without Attributes, beyond Space and Time. In This State it has Immediate Knowledge of its State and its Content is Pure Knowledge. When Consciousness Activates Various Limitations Manifest, and thus World Consciousness and Individual Consciousness Appear. Universal Consciousness Directly Apprehends (mentally) its environment and its Content is always a “apprehension”. Individual Consciousness indirectly captures, through various functions, information from its environment and constructs an "image" of the environment. Its content is mental images, mental knowledge, and concepts.

Embodied Consciousness uses mental functions, sensory perception and experience from contact with the external world to form a "picture" of the world. Through all this activity it "internalizes" external information, into representations, concepts, and with the help of higher mental functions recognizes its environment. The sensory perception of a thing creates the internal representation. Representations of similar things create internal concepts. The mental process uses a priori concepts (mental representations of ideas, categories) created by the intellect itself, and concepts of external objects, to synthesize the vision of the world. The cognitive process manifests itself in reasoning, memory and external life. The vision of the world is always a "construction". Societies have always had a perception of the world which they passed on to subsequent generations through “socialization”. All these perceptions are relative and local.

In particular, the concepts that are the basic material of thought, are abstract mental objects, which the intellect either produces, or creates from objects of the external world. Concepts (within a society) are shared heritage and transmitted through communication, language and learning. Joining a society provides the common background of thought, but at the same time it is a "mental prison". Be that as it may, man is a social being, he lives in societies. If one seeks a Greater Truth one must go beyond social perceptions, prejudices and ways of life.

The mind works on several levels. So the depth, the content, the quality of the concepts, varies according to the level of mental functioning. There are objective, correct and precise concepts when they are created in the context of a scientific understanding and a scientific language. There are "personal" interpretations of concepts. There are still concepts with empirical content.



13. Knowledge


Consciousness, in whatever state it finds itself, uses cognitive processes to understand its state and its environment. The result of this activity is knowledge.

When Consciousness is in its Natural Transcendent State, Knowledge is Immediate, Without Process. It Possesses from the Beginning the Sacred Knowledge of Reality.

When Consciousness Manifests through the limitations of Creation as Limited Consciousness the cognitive process is differentiated. In the State of Universal Consciousness there is direct mental apprehension of reality (an activity that constitutes some kind of process). The result is Inner or Higher Knowledge, which is Objective Knowledge since it transcends the limits of individuality.

When Consciousness manifests as an individual entity (as in Embodied Consciousness, man), then it uses mental functions, sensory perception, and experience of external things to synthesize knowledge of itself in the world, knowledge of the surrounding world, and the knowledge of things.

In the case of man, knowledge can be internal or external. Inner knowledge can be knowledge of the self (self-knowledge) or knowledge of objective ideas (logical knowledge). External knowledge comes from external experience. That some result of a cognitive process is considered "knowledge" by society, by some group or an individual, does not mean that it is necessarily true. It's just assumed to be true.

Knowledge is both personal and social at the same time. Personal knowledge can be limited to social knowledge or differentiated from it, or even exceed it, or fall short of it.

Knowledge is accumulated and stored in various forms, tradition, books, and other technical media.

Knowledge is global as well as local.

There are various fields of knowledge, scientific knowledge, technical knowledge, special knowledge or simply the prevailing culture in a society.

After all, of all the accumulated knowledge of humanity, how much is true (and not conventionally true)? Unfortunately less than 30%. Ask yourself what that means.



14. Mental


The mental relates to the mind and refers to the process of thinking compared to the non-mental (the material). It also refers to the state of the thought process. That is, at what level do we operate, objective thinking, intellect, or instinctive intelligence. If we think rationally or not, if we react balanced, etc.



15. Cogitation


The term thinking means both the process of mental activity, the process of thinking (thinking), and the result of the process (thinking, thoughts)

There are various levels of mental activity, and therefore many qualities of thought, many kinds of thought.

1) Objective thinking, critical thinking, (individual objective thoughts).

2) Deductive, logical thinking or creative thinking, or biased thinking, (personal thoughts)

3) Reflective thinking or instinctive thinking, (reflective thoughts).



16. Thinking


Thinking is all mental activities that produce a cognitive result, either simple (such as a perceptual concept), or more complex (such as the result of a judgment, or a reasoning) or even more profound (such as objective knowledge).

There are different levels of thinking.


1) Objective Thinking. With the help of Logic and Discrimination it produces objective knowledge. It only uses real verified information. And not social prejudices or personal beliefs and prejudices.


2) Conceptual or abstract thinking.

Critical Thinking (Judging the truth or falsity of either a judgment or a more complex cognitive result).

Reasoning (Combining concepts and cognitive outcomes to produce a more complex cognitive outcome).

Reflective or Thoughtful Thinking (Reorganization and readjustment of knowledge).

Creative Thinking (Generating new interpretations of cognitive elements that result in new original cognitive outcomes).

Divergent Thinking (Exploring multiple solutions to a mental problem)

Convergent Thinking (Eliminating inappropriate solutions to a problem to arrive at the most appropriate).

Linear Thinking (Processing information, sequentially).

Non-Linear Thinking (Connecting information from multiple sources).


3) Perceptual or Concrete Thinking. It creates (with the help of sensory perception) mental images of external things (representations), and produces the concepts of things.


17. Reasoning


Reasoning is logical and judicious thinking. Evidence, valid information and facts are used to reach a logical conclusion

There are different types of reasoning.

Deductive reasoning

Inductive reasoning

Analogical reasoning

Cause and effect reasoning

Critical thinking

The reasoning of decomposing a whole into parts.



18. Cognitive processes

Human Intelligence is expressed through Thinking (Rational Thinking, Reasoning, Simple Intelligence), Memory, Sensory Perception and Experience of the Environment and the External World. Abilities that all intelligent beings have. In our contact with the environment we develop cognitive processes, through which we acquire, process, store and use information in our further action. Attention, selection of information, logical analysis, judgment and understanding help the knowledge process. This is how we understand, learn, and act in the world. Knowledge is expressed on the mental level with concepts and knowledge and on the external level with human language.